Tag Archive | "slaves"

Tackling The National Debt 1771 Style

Balancing the Debt

Balancing the Debt

Today Most Western countries are struggling to pay off their national debt and keep their houses in order, it seems though, that things have been the same many times before. The 1770’s were no different. People came up with unpopular and outlandish ideas to balance the books, just as they do today.  The article below comes from “The Oxford Magazine” 1770.

The Cobler of Cranbourne-Alley, ever the attentive to the duty which a public writer owes to the public, does himself  the honour to transmit you a plan for discharging the National Debt; and he is serious in his belief that, if his plan should be adopted, it will fully answer the end proposed.


Plan for discharging the National Debt.

  • A tax on all Bachelors in England, Scotland, and Ireland, above thirty years of age. (Suppose half a million of people, at 20s. Per annum)-500,000
  • A tax on all frequenters of places of public entertainment in Town and Country. (Reckon this article in the Gross, at the sum of —-
  • Abolish all pensions under the Government. This Article may be rated at 300,000
  • Tax every Race horse kept in this Kingdom, at 20 l. Per annum (Reckon 1000)  £20,000
  • Ten Pounds per annum on every Negro Servant kept in these Kingdoms. (Suppose 5000) 50,000
  • Five Pounds per annum on every Livery Servant kept by any Nobleman. Suppose 100,000) 500,000
  • Fifty Pounds Per annum on each Livery Servant ,kept by any Nobleman, or person of Superior rank.  (Reckon 1000 Servants) 50,000
  • A tax of 10s. Per annum on every Dog kept by any person, except a Butcher, or others whose business may demand the assistance of that animal. We Cannot allow a less sum for this article than — 300,000
  • A tax of 20s. per annum on all butchers &c. keeping Dogs under Licence. (suppose 40,000) -20,000
  • A tax on 30,000 Lawyers, at 20l. Per annum – 600,000
    Ditto on Pawnbrokers, at 10l. per annum – 100,000
    Ditto on Publicans, at 5l.Per annum -250,000
    Ditto on the bulls and Bears of change alley. (Suppose 1000) at 50 l. each per annum. -50,000

  • ——————————–
    • 2,790,000

    • Let all taxes, hitherto imposed for the purpose of paying the interest of the National Debt, be continued; and it is certain, that the Taxes above recited will discharge the principle in a reasonable number of years.


The Oxford Magazine. September 1771
Many thanks to Valerie Karatzas, for the lead.

I am, your humble servant,

  • The Cobler of Cranbourne Alley.
  • Posted in Black Britain, Black History, Black People in Europe, SlaveryComments (0)

    Ottobah Cugoano – Abolitionist

    Ottobah CugoanoOttobah Cugoano was born around 1757 in Ghana, he was kidnapped as a slave at around thirteen. He came to England from Grenada in 1752 and was set free. He was advised to be baptised to avoid being resold into Slavery he took the name John Steuart. He had close association with Oloudah Equiano and Granville Sharp. In 1786 when a black man called Henry Demane was kidnapped, it was Ottobah Cugoano who alerted Sharp who then rescued Demane.

    The following year he published ‘Thoughts and Sentiments on

    The Evil and Wicked Traffic Of Slavery”and “The Commerce of The Human Species”. The book sets about demolishing the arguments for slavery. It was ground breaking in its content because Ottobah Cugoano declared that the enslaved Blacks had both the moral right and the moral duty to resist their masters.

    quoteIf any man should buy another man…and compel him to his service and slavery without any agreement of that man to serve him, the enslaver? is? a robber and a defrauder of that man every day.? Wherefore it is as much the duty of a man who is robbed in that manner to get out of the hands of his enslaver, as it the duty of any honest community of men to get out of the hands of thieves and villains.

    Ottobah Cugoano dared to take a stand, and publicly demand the abolition of the slave trade and the emancipation of the slaves. It was ideas such as Cuganno’s which paved the way for the beginning of Pan Africanism.

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    Granville Sharpe


    Granville Sharpe

    Granville Sharpe

    Sharpe was Possibly the Most Prominent of the Abolitionists and today, is certainly the most celebrated.? Sharp wrote numerous articles about slavery, religious history and now and then turned his hand to Social theory.

    He was born in Durham on 10 November 1735 and was one of eight children. He was sent to London to become an apprentice to a linen draper, he missed out on the Formal education that his older brothers had received. Gretchen Gerzina suggests that ‘One might expect Sharp to have Chaffed at such Menial work, especially when his brothers were all in Processional Careers’. But she goes on to point out that Sharp seemed to be working in manual professions for a reason. He was learning the views and arguments of his many Employers. Because they were all from different backgrounds, he saw the value of their differing perspectives on life.? He Said ‘This extraordinary experience has taught me to make a proper distinction between the OPINIONS of men and their PERSONS’.

    This was a man who seemed to never tire. He worked full time but really became involved with the abolitionists proper when a Black man called Jonathan Strong came to his brothers surgery badly beaten (Pistol whipped by his master.)

    Sharp went on to fight the cases of a great many slaves. He was the chairman of the ‘Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade’ informed of the kidnaping of Henry Demane thanks (indirectly) to Ottobah Cugganno. Demane was saved from transportation to the Plantations.

    In 1769 he Published “A Representation of the Injustice and Dangerous Tendency of Tolerating Slavery Or of admitting the least claim of private property in the persons of men, in England”

    This Challenged the country’s legal establishment declaring that legally ” As soon as a Negro comes into England he becomes Free”

    Eventually though would come his most famous case where he represented James Somerset. In What for ever more would become known as the “Somerset ruling” Sharp fought and won a battle which allowed Somerset to stay in England. Even though his master, A Virginia planter wanted to take him back to the plantations in the west Indies.

    Sharp argued that everyone coming into this country was subject to its laws and protection. Somerset had run away and then been recaptured by his master, that was kidnapping, according to James Mansfield, part of Sharps legal team, Not Lord Mansfield the case Judge)
    Somerset had every right to abscond because he was only property in the West Indies not here in England.

    After much deliberation Lord Mansfield found in favour of Somerset and Sharp won the case, However many people misunderstood the ruling believing that the ruling meant that all the Slaves in Britain were automatically Free.

    What it in fact meant was that the masters could not legally force a slave to leave the country against his own will.

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    Black heroes played key roles in the Texas Revolution


    April, 19, 2009

    A free African-American in 1836 rendered “valuable assistance” to the Texas Army during the Texas Revolution, according to a historical marker on his grave near Nacogdoches.

    Records show that William E. Goyens and many others -slaves and freemen and indentured servants – all were involved in the revolution 173 years ago.

    But in the past, many history textbooks lacked this information.

    On San Jacinto Day this year, former Texas Rep. Al Price plans to do his part to rectify this lapse in the Lone Star State’s record.

    Price will speak at Theodore Johns Library at 7 p.m. Tuesday regarding the contributions of African-Americans to the cause of Texas independence from Mexico.

    “The participation of African-Americans is something that has been subdued,” Price said. “I graduated from high school not knowing that blacks had fought for independence. It was not in the books we were given in the classroom.”

    In fact, a soldier said to be the first to shed blood for Texas’ independence was a free mulatto born to a slave mother and her white master, according to “Bricks without Straw,” a history of African-Americans in Texas by David A. Williams.

    Samuel McCullough Jr., part of a volunteer company under Capt. James Collinsworth, was wounded by gunfire at Goliad on Oct. 9, 1835. The wound left McCullough handicapped for the rest of his life, but he was rewarded with a land grant in 1838 as well as being exempted from an 1840 legislative order compelling free blacks to leave Texas.

    Black soldiers from Southeast Texas also served.

    Luke and Tapler Ashworth fought with Capt. Hargrove’s’ Company out of Beaumont, and Abner and William Ashworth contributed money and supplies.

    The Ashworth family was a prominent one in Southeast Texas, Price said.

    Joseph Tate, a free African-American, was listed on the army rolls as a member of Capt. James Shessire’s company of volunteers out of Jasper.

    He, along with others, also were exempt when free blacks were ordered out of Texas, although whether or not Tate and the Ashworths received land grants is not known.

    Hendrick Arnold, a hunter, guide and scout of good reputation, acted as a guide during the siege and capture of Bexar.

    “During the Texas Revolution, Hendrick Arnold, described as one of the oldest and boldest pioneers of the west, joined the army and fought valiantly for his adopted country,” Williams wrote in “Bricks Without Straw.”

    Read More>>

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    Obama, race, reality and reconciliation

    President Obama is beset with critics punching below the belt

    President Obama is beset with critics punching below the belt

    Two months into the administration of the first African-American president, Liz Sidoti of the Associated Press takes a look today at some of the “old racial stereotypes and Internet-fueled falsehoods” about President Barack Obama that have “flourished.”

    There was that New York Post cartoon portraying the president as a monkey, that California mayor resigning after circulating a picture of watermelons on the White House lawn, the “magic mulatto” email making the rounds of the Net. And there are those relentless questions about Obama’s own citizenship and religion.

    “Disproved and disputed claims about his religion and citizenship, namely untruths that Obama is a Muslim and isn’t U.S.-born, zip across chat rooms and dominate the blogosphere,” Sidoti writes. “Fringe critics largely are responsible for perpetuating the lies, but even elected officials have raised them.”

    The achievement of one man in breaking the nation’s racial barriers has not “entirely changed the dynamic of a country founded by slave owners,” she suggests.

    “”There’s certainly no lessening of racially charged barbs aimed at the president,” says Anita L. Allen, a University of Pennsylvania law school professor who has studied race relations for years. “In fact there may be more, some vicious and cruel by his enemies and some distasteful and playful by his friends.”

    Obama, for his part, maintains that all the celebration of the history that he made with his election “lasted about a day,”’ with his inauguration, and that crisis-consumed Americans will judge him by an entirely different standard.

    Read the full Article>>

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    A White Cuban Woman Facing the Mirror


    What Race?

    I don’t remember ever having asked myself what race I belonged to. I was born advantaged in a society that discriminated against non-whites.

    So, am I white? The answer isn’t so simple. On my identity card, it says my skin color is white. So, am I white? Let’s have a look at my genealogical tree; since racial classifications don’t work with me.

    Contemporary science has penetrated the substance of the human genome, and it turns out that the theory of racial differences has been thrown out, because there’s only one race: the human race, and people of all colors belong to it.

    Leaving the genome aside, I’ll continue with my genealogy.

    What I know about my family

    The first trunk: a daughter of Africans, brought -we now know how- to this Caribbean land. She would end up with others like her in a group of slaves in the sugarcane fields in the eastern part of the island.


    What I know about my family

    The first trunk: a daughter of Africans, brought -we now know how- to this Caribbean land. She would end up with others like her in a group of slaves in the sugarcane fields in the eastern part of the island.

    This black woman had sex with another black person -we don’t know who- and gave birth to a Cuban girl. The child grew up and crossed with no other than a Chinese man! He was also swindled into coming here, but from the Yucatan, and he too was semi-enslaved on the cane plantation.

    There is a historical parenthesis: blacks, whites, Chinese, Moors, all went to war so that the Spanish settlers would be made to leave their homeland.

    After thirty years of fighting, they won the war and freedom came – not as free as they wanted, but hey…we won’t talk about that now.

    Let me return to my great-great-grandmother, because that black woman who married a Chinese man was my great-grandmother’s mother, who I actually met.

    Named Alfonsa, though they called her Focha, there was my great-grandmother, an Afro-Chinese mulatta who died at 108, blind and strong, and who asked for coffee in the mornings without getting out of the bed because she had a “cold head.”

    I also met my great-grandfather, who passed for white but wasn’t; this was because he descended from Canary Islanders.

    Read the Full article>>


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    Black Soldiers in the British Army-John Ellis

    John Ellis has been regular contributor to “The Black Presence in Britain Website. His specialist research focuses on the black presence in the British Armed Forces before the 20th Century.

    In the synopsis of my MA thesis, (featured on this site), I referred to a number of Black soldiers who served in British regiments during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

    It would of course be easy to leave such men as? faceless individuals ,however, military records from the period are sufficiently accurate that we are able to examine their careers. Below are the biographical and service details of eleven soldiers, who are fairly representative of those being found by my research. NB. All dates are given in the British manner, all spelling as found in original records. West Indies Born.

    The majority of the Black soldiers thus far found originated from the West Indies, something which reflected the? Triangular trade. ) The 29th Foot, (now the? Worcestershire & Sherwood Foresters Regiment ), has always been proud of its tradition of employing black soldiers during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The practice began in the early 1750s, and whilst initially ceremonial, Black soldiers were fully trained as soldiers and served as company drummers, accompanying the regiment on campaign in North America, the East and West Indies and most famously the Peninsular.

    John Macnell was one of the earliest black soldiers in the regiment. He was born in Antigua in 1744, enlisted in the 29th in 1756 aged 12 years, (not an unusual age for either black or white), and was discharged to pension in London in 1777 as disabled. He was described as? a Negro . Macnell sources: WO 12/4493. WO 120/8. 2) Probably because of the perceived racial hierarchy of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, few Black soldiers were promoted to positions of authority over whites, (although paradoxically their records reveal them to have been highly respected soldiers). Of the few Black soldiers to be promoted, it is clear that extensive campaign experience was one of the criteria, as the records of one Estiphania Pappin reveal.

    Estiphania Pappin. Born in St. Domingo, West Indies and enlisted in the 39th Foot, (now the? Devon & Dorset Regiment ), in Malta 1st March 1808 aged 20 years. Promoted Corporal 01/02/1828.? Served in Malta 1 year, Sicily 14 months, Peninsula 3 years and was present at several engagements – Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Garris, Orthes and Toulouse. In America 1 year, in France 3 years and New South Wales 9 months.? Discharged as a Corporal to a pension of 1s per day, 30th June 1832, at his own request.? ….his conduct has been that of a particularly regular, sober, well conducted man.? On discharge he was 441/2 years old, 5 /10? tall, had grey hair, black eyes, a dark complexion -? a man of colour? – and was a labourer by trade.

    Pappin Sources: WO 97/557. 3)

    A number of Black soldiers appear to have spent their military service undertaking ceremonial duties in London, including one Edward Bennaway.

    Edward Bennaway. Born in Martinique, West Indies and enlisted for life in the 2nd Life Guards in Westminster, Middlesex 25th December 1812 aged 28 years. Discharged as a Private to a pension of 1s per day 24th August 1827 due to? having completed his period of service.? On discharge he was of extremely good character, 52 years old, 6 /0? tall, had black hair, grey eyes, was? a man of colour , and was a fisherman by trade.

    Bennaway Sources: WO 97/1. 4)

    In 1818 the American former slave and boxer Tom Molineaux died in the barracks of the 77th Foot, (now the? Princess of Wales? Royal Regiment ), in Galway, Ireland. As he lay dying he was nursed by the Black bandsmen of the regiment including one Charles Smart.

    Charles Smart. Height at Enlistment: 5/71/4. Age on Enlistment: 25 years. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Black Woolly. Visage: Round. Born: Jamaica. Trade: Labourer. Place of Enlistment: Cashel. Date of Enlistment: 25th April 1816. Length of Service:Unlimited. Discharged in Jamaica 31st December 1833,? On receiving a gratuity.? Smart Source: WO 25/473. 5)

    Given their position at the top of the regimental hierarchy a number of cavalry regiments employed Black soldiers as military musicians. However, in battles such as the Peninsular and Waterloo these men served as either troop trumpeters or as ordinary Privates.

    John Monatt. Born in St. George s, Grenada and enlisted for unlimited service in the 5th Dragoon Guards, (now the? Royal Dragoon Guards ), in Canterbury, Kent 11th April 1812 aged 21 years. Discharged as a Private to a pension 27th April 1825 due to rheumatism and general ill health. Surgeon noted? I hereby certify that Private John Monatt of the 5th Dragoon Guards is unfit for service, in consequence of chronic rheumatism and general ill health……next few words indecipherable…contracted in service and resulting in a delicate constitution.? On discharge he was of good character, 34 years old, 5/10? tall, had black hair,hazel eyes, a tawny complexion and was a servant by trade. In 1848 John Monatt, formerly of the 5th Dragoon Guards, was awarded the Military General Service Medal 1793-1814, with a clasp for Toulouse. Monatt Sources: WO 97/96. 6)

    William Wilson. Born in Barbadoes, West Indies and initially enlisted in the 55th Foot 25th April 1795 aged 24 years. Enlisted in the 28th Light Dragoons 30/04/1798. Enlisted in the 13th Light Dragoons 26/02/1803. Served as a Private at Waterloo, and received the Waterloo Medal. Discharged as a Private to a pension of 9d per day 20th May 1816 as worn out. On discharge he was 37years old, 5 /61/2? tall,? a black man? and was a musician by trade. Wilson Source: WO 97/146. 7) During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries much of the British Army was employed in the Far East, and many Black soldiers spent their service there, being involved in the numerous campaigns.

    Elisha Rosia. Born in Martinique, West Indies and enlisted for unlimited service in the 69th Foot. (now the? Royal Regiment of Wales ), in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, 12th January 1803, aged 25 years. Discharged as a Private to a pension of 1s/1d per day, 28th August 1823,? being worn out in service.?? Very good and deserving.? On discharge he was 40 years old, 5 /51/2? tall, had black hair, black eyes,a black complexion and was a hair dresser by trade. Some doubt as to age. In 1848 an Elisha Rosia, formerly of the 69th Foot, was awarded the Military General Service Medal 1793-1814, with a bar for Java. Drew pension in Madras until death in January 1848. Rosia Sources: WO 97/822. 120/69-70. Born elsewhere. Whilst the majority of Black soldiers found can be identified as coming from the West Indies, others came in roughly equal measure from Africa, continental North America, (i.e. the United States and Canada), the East Indies and Britain and Ireland. Cool The 88th Foot had a number of Black soldiers serving with it in the Peninsular campaign, and even after the Napoleonic Wars continued to recruit Black soldiers.

    Thomas Clarke.88th Foot. Height at Enlistment: 5 /81/2 . Height at 24 years: 5 /81/2 . Age on Enlistment:23 years. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Black. Visage: Round. Born: Africa. Parish of Birth: Goree. Trade: Servant. Enlisted: Liverpool. Date of Enlistment: 17th July1820. Length of Service: Life. Recruiter: HQ Regt., (Col. Sgt Scrivins). Goree, is a small island off Cape Verde in Senegal. Captured from the French in the early part of the Napoleonic Wars. Clarke Sources: WO 25/517. 9)

    Samuel Jones. 99th Foot. Height at Enlistment: 5 /41/2 . Age on Enlistment: 15 yrs. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Woolly black. Born: Calcutta, East Indies. Trade:Labourer. Enlisted: Dublin. Date of enlistment: 23rd February 1810. Period of Service:Unlimited. Recruited by: Sgt. Tewhoy. Jones Source/s: PRO. WO 25/550. 10)

    Gibeon Lippett. Born in Rhode Island, (America), and enlisted for unlimited service in the 43rd Foot, (now the? Royal Green Jackets ), in Cork city, County Cork,22nd June 1796, aged 17 years. Served 185 days as a Private, 29 years and 103 days as a Drummer, (and 185 days underage).? Served with the regiment 3 years in the West Indies.In the expedition to Copenhagen in 1807, General Sir John Moore s retreat in 1809, and in every siege and action in which the 43rd Regiment was engaged from the Battle of Coa 24th July 1810, to the end of the War in the South of France. Served at New Orleans in America, 8th January, 1815 and present at the Capture of Paris in July 1815.? Discharged as a Private to a pension, 5th April 1826,? his constitution being worn out by long and severe service.? On discharge he was illiterate, of very good character, 57 years old, 5 /83/4? tall, had black hair,black eyes, a mulatto complexion, and was a sail maker by trade. Lippett Source: WO 97/587. 11)

    By the mid 1840s the practice of employing Black soldiers alongside whites is believed to have finished, and thereafter Blacks are thought to have been unofficially restricted to the West India Regiment and East India Company until World War One. Considering the long tradition of Black soldiers serving in the 29th Foot, (see entry #1), it is fitting to finish this short study with George Carville.

    George Carville. A Drummer. Height at Enlistment: 6/1/4 . Age on Enlistment: 18 years. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Black Woolly. Visage: Round. Born: Limerick. Parish of Birth: St. Mary s. Trade: Labourer. Place of Enlistment: Mullingar. Date of Enlistment: 26th of February 1823. Length of Service: Unlimited. Recruiter: Col. Sir John Buchan. Died at Ghargeepore, (India), 15th July 1843. The last black Drummer of the 29th Foot, believed to have died of cholera. Left a credit of approximately five pounds in a will for his nominated next of kin, his (white) regimental comrade Private JosephPrindale. Carville Sources: WO 25/364. WO 25/3255.

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    Black British History Books – Some Light reading

    This list of black history books is not exhaustive by any means.

    Buy Black History Books Online via Black Presence in Britain.

    Click the links to buy the books directly via this website.  Part of the fee goes to help fund blackpresence.co.uk

    * Staying Power-The History of Black people in Britain by Peter Fryer (Pluto Press 1984)

    * Black England-Life before Emancipation by Gretchen Gerzina (John Murray,1995)

    * Black Settlers in Britain 1555-1958 by Nigel File and chris Power (Heinemann,1981; reprinted 1995)

    * Black Edwardians-Black people in Britain 1901-1914 by Jeffrey Green (Frank Cass 1998)

    * Wonderful adventures of Mary Seacole in Many Lands by Mary Seacole (1857; reprinted by Falling Wall Press,edited by Ziggy Alexander and Audrey Dewjee,1984).

    * Black Londoners 1880-1990 by susan Okokon (Sutton Publishing Limited, 1998)

    * The History of Mary Prince, a West Indian Slave (1831; reprinted by the University of Michigan Press, edited by Moira Ferguson,1993).

    * The first Black footballer-Arthur Wharton 1865-1930 An Absence of Memory by Phil Vasili (frank Cass,1998, reprinted 1999)

    * Colouring over the white Line- The History of Black footballers in Britain by Phil Vasili (Mainstream Publishing,2000)

    * Breaking Stereotypes-Perspectives of Selected Black and Asian Leaders Edited by Clinton A.Valley,EdD. (Minerva Press, 2000)

    * West Indian Women at War-British Racism in World War II by Ben Bousquet and Colin Douglas (Lawrence and Wishhart, 1991)

    * Roots of the Future-Ethnic Diversity in the making of Britain By Commission for Racial Equality, 1997

    * England Affric-An Ethnological Survey by Ahmed ali and Abrahim Ali
    (Punite Books, 1995) ISBN 0 9518924 4 4

    * A History of the Black Presence in London (Greater London Council, 1986)
    ISBN 0 7168 1679 2

    * Black and white- the Negro and English Society 1555-1945 By James Walvin (Allen Lane, 1973)

    Posted in Black Britain, Black History Books, Black People in EuropeComments (0)

    The Rwandan Genocide: Why it happened

    Rwandan Victims of Genocide

    Rwandan Victims of Genocide

    Rwandan Genocide: Why it happened and Why it shouldn’t have happen The year 2004 marked the 10th anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide in which 1,000,000 Rwandans were slaughtered over the course of 100 days, although some officials reported a span of 8 weeks. The memorial was shortly followed by quaint revelations from European and American governments who freely admitted to having being able to prevent the slaughter, but for their own obtuse reasons, which they never directly answer to anyway-did not act.

    Official estimate now is that it would have taken as few as 5,000 ground troops-presumably from the UN-to prevent the bloodbath. An issue that is even more provoking, but lacks public dialogue, is how the events that lead to the genocide was a direct product of European capitalism, colonialism, slavery, exploitation and the racist ideology that was deliberately developed to justify it.

    The ‘age-old tribal and ethnic hostilities’ lie was perpetuated to deflect blame from where it belongs, when infact prior to 1959, there are no records of systematic violence against one group or the other. The colonial created national myth of Rwanda is that the Tutsis and the Hutu are two groups who came from elsewhere on the African continent. This myth has it that the Twa (pygmy) people are the original inhabitants, and that the Hutus came from the Bantu people of the South and the West, while the Tutsis are Nilotic people from the North. Although both groups are African in any sense, in racial terms, this means that the Hutus are “Black Africans” and the Tutsis are of Ethiopian stock, with lighter skin, narrower noses and ‘better’ hair (undoubtedly meaning it was less kinky/coarse). Be that as it may, before the European Colonials arrived, this petty difference did not matter much for the two groups lived together, spoke the same language, shared the same religion, shared power and married each other-meaning that before colonialism and the ushering of racial categories for Africans, the Hutu and the Tutsis were already mixed with each other-indeed by the time the first European arrived in Rwanda in the end of the 19th century, it would have been easy to assume a person who was Hutu to be Tutsis, and a Tutsis to be Hutu. The Tutsis were the herders while the Hutus were the cultivators, because cattle are highly valued, the Tutsis had become economic and political elites.

    The title ‘Hutu’ then took on social-economic connotations, becoming a trans-ethnic identity associated with subjugation, not ethnicity. Infact, one could Kwihutura, or shed hutuness by accumulating wealth and rising through the social hierarchy. (Wikipedia.com) This petty difference went through an intense social stratification in the mid-1800’s as the European superpowers scrambled for Africa, converting the continent into the energy source which would be used to power that enormous machine called European Capitalism (and it’s Euro-America(n) relative).

    Rwanda was porous and ethnicity was not the only factor that designated ones social status and social power, until the Germans then later the Belgians. The end of the 19th century marked the arrival of Europeans explorers and would-be colonialist in Rwanda, who rationalized what they saw as best as they could-forming a picture of a stately race of warrior kings surrounded by herds of cattle and what could only be described through their lenses of ‘scientific racism’ as a subordinate people-thus they saw exactly what they wanted to see. Of course, as it was/is rationalized everywhere Europeans encountered mulit-hued populations of various physical phenotypes, the Africans resembling themselves were considered superior while the ones with visible and discernable physical differences (typically the darkest of skinned peoples) would be relegated to the bottom of the evolutionary ladder in every colonized African country. Accordingly, the Tutsis fell in place to be cultivated and nurtured as the ‘pet Africans’ serving as the bureaucratic and security ranks of the colonial government, a successful divide and conquer strategy for the colonial rulers. Rwanda was first a German colony. Tutsis leaders were enlisted as collaborators and rewarded with patronage from the then colonist.

    The Colonial powers made the Hutu the slaves, and put the Tutsis in leadership positions to be the ‘over-seers’. Rwanda was well polarized by the time the Belgians took over after World War l, who sent armies of missionaries to Christianize the country, with scientists who would weight the brains and noses of the Hutus and Tutsis, and put the results through comparative analysis further polarizing the Hutu’s and the Tutsis, and just as they surmised, the Tutsis were more ‘noble’ and ‘aristocratic’ than the Hutus who were considered ‘coarse’ and bestial’. It was with the collaboration of the Catholic Church that the Belgians would reconstruct Rwanda along racial lines, and by the 1930’s after conducting a census the best they could, they then issued ethnic identity cards. Catholic schools in turn educated Tutsis exclusively indoctrinating every school child with the notion of racial superiority.

    After the holocaust and pressure from the UN for independence, a new European rhetoric of ‘equality’ came ushering in with a wave of Belgian priest preaching Hutu ‘empowerment’ as a preparation for Rwandan independence. Of course, it was never about ‘equality’, it was and always was about power and ultimately retribution. By the time independence was granted to Rwanda by the Belgians, the damage was done, and sores were freshly open as the Hutu majority was given sole political power after the ‘Rwandan Revolution’. There were countless programs against the Tutsis put in place from then on leading up to the Genocide. And from then on, the condition of the Tutsis was constantly up and down depending on the particular Hutu leader in power. After the Cold War, all bets were off and done for, and the West no more had an ‘interest’ in Africa. All the ‘pet’ leaders were left to their own devices as the plug was pulled, and various leaders inherited (from their colonial rulers no doubt) the social, economic and political fallout resulting from 500 years of European colonialism, and slavery.

    The end result unfolded in April of 1994 when the political will of the West to intervene-send a mere 5000 troops-to prevent a monstrous genocide from happening. They didn’t care, and they didn’t need too since their national ‘interest’ had left Africa. The Rwandan Genocide stands out as significant, not only because of the sheer number of people massacred in such a short period of time, but also because of United Nations’s (UN) inadequate response. Despite intelligence provided before the killing began, and international news media coverage of the true scale of violence as the genocide unfolded, most first-world countries including France, Belgium (which held Rwanda as a colony after World War I), and the United States declined to intervene or speak out against the planned massacres. Race and History.com It is time the world woke up to the truth about the war in central Africa and the events of April through July of 1994. These events parallel the attacks on Yugoslavia and the accusations of genocide against the Serbs and other Slavs.

    Moreover, these events had the same objectives, used the same strategies and tactics and were planned and controlled by the same Great Powers. Their lust for control of the world knows no bounds. They are willing to murder millions so they can make billions. In the West we are told that this tragedy involved genocide by Hutus against Tutsis and that the U.S. and other Western powers sinned by failing to intervene. Many people, including some on the Left, denounced the supposed Western failure to intervene, arguing that it demonstrates indifference to the suffering of Black Africans.

    The lies and propaganda against the Hutus, condemned as “genocidaires,” whose only crime was to defend their small country against a foreign invasion by Tutsis from outside Rwanda with the backing of the United States, Britain, Belgium, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi and the United Nations itself.

    This invasion had the objective of restoring the tyranny of minority Tutsi rule while reducing the majority Hutu people to serfdom and a life of terror and that was supported by the great powers in order to take control of all of central Africa and its vast and incalculable resources. The propaganda against the Hutus is racist to the core and is generated by the Tutsi claim to be a superior race, more white than the “primitive” Hutus, a Bantu people, and it fits nicely with the racist attitudes of the Americans, British and Belgians who took part in the invasion and helped murder the Presidents of both Rwanda and Burundi on April 6, 1994 The Truth Turned Upside Down The violence started with a series of raids against Hutus in Rwanda, conducted by the so-called Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), a U.S.-sponsored, Tutsi paramilitary organization. These raids occurred during the period 1990-1993. The raids were repelled; even so, they gave the RPF valuable information about the government’s capacity to defend Rwanda. Based on this information, the U.S.-backed forces successfully invaded northern Rwanda in 1993, driving a million people from their homes. This massive campaign of terror, directed against civilians, is never mentioned in the Western media.

    The second stage of violence was launched on April 6, 1994. At that time, the invading Tutsi RPF shot down the airplane carrying the Presidents of Rwanda and Burundi, both Hutus. The main victims of the widespread fighting that followed were Hutus and moderate Tutsis. The western-backed Tutsi invaders of Rwanda murdered between one and a half and two million Hutus in the four months between April 6 and July 4, 1994 and have murdered more than two million more since then by attacking Hutu refugees in the Congo.

    It is a tragedy made more macabre by the Tutsi claim that their Hutu victims were really Tutsis, a claim they use to justify their dictatorial stranglehold on the people of that beautiful country by portraying themselves as the victims. This macabre reversal of the truth is supported by various intellectuals, NGOs and western governments who easily fall into the racist trap of believing the lies of the Tutsi regime in Rwanda, and the lies of the Americans who, while actively involved in the murder of millions, claim to have had no involvement and to add insult to injury, ‘admit’ the lie that they were negligent in not taking steps to stop the war and the killing when in fact they were the sponsors.

    The Rwandan genocide of 1994 was one of the defining events of the twentieth century. It ended the illusion that the evil of genocide had been eradicated and spurred renewed commitment to halting genocides in the future-hopefully.

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