Tag Archive | "Liverpool"

Four very British Race Rows..Almost


Race in the Media

Race in the Media

If , like me, you keep an eye on the British media and the way that it reports race, then you will not have let events of December 2011 go unnoticed.

Seasoned observers of the media will recognise that headlines seem to be on a perpetual carousel, every now and again racism rears its ugly head. This December there were four prominent articles regarding racism all at the same time. The way the media handled each one was different let’s take a look.

Firstly, we had the race row that erupted during the football match between Liverpool FC and Manchester United. In this match Mr Patrice Evra said that Mr Luis Suarez racially abused him Mr Suarez denied the claims the press would very quick to side with ever, was this right ? you look at this later .

Then we had the re-trial of the suspects accused of murdering Stephen Lawrence back in 1993 back in football, we had John Terry accused of racially abusing Anton Ferdinand.

Then in the world of politics. Labour MP Diane created a storm amongst voters and political opponents with a very foolish tweet.
The way that the media handled all of these cases was completely different.The reason for writing this post so far after the facts is simplyt to look at the hypocrisy that exists within the British media, and to reflect on how some of us in the British public seemed to just love to go along with it all.

People of colour have been subjected to racism for years, it’s nothing new to us. that doesn’t make it right. However, if we are to remain credible all cries or claims of racism have to be objectively substantiated. If someone cries racism and that accusation results in someone being punished because of that claim, then it is paramount that claim must be true, it must be proven to be true, by the presentation of facts. In the absence of facts, all we have is our memory, our account, however accurate is not evidence or proof.

Presenting our account without facts, should really be completely invalid as evidence in a court or tribunal. Anyone who cries racism when there is no proof of racism, is only making a statement, they are retelling their version of events.

To have someone punished on the basis of a claim of racism without any substantiated evidence seems to me completely bogus. Would you want to be convicted or found guilty of committing a crime when there was no evidence other than an unsubstantiated claim of someone who said that you did something.

Racism in Football

The Evra / Suarez case is particularly unique because none of the other footballers on the pitch heard any racial slur come from Mr Suarez It is my opinion that this counts as one man’s word against another. So many people condemned Suarez before the Official report even came out. When you read the F.A’s report Suarez admits saying the word “Negro” (Neg-ro). I think that it is important to get the use of this word into context. We must be clear that the Spanish use of “Negro” (Neg-ro). The way the Spanish use (Neg-ro) is not the same as the word The British and Americans use the word Negro (knee-Grow).

The crux, in this case basically rests on the fact that Suarez made reference to the other players colour. That is what got him bang to rights, this is what made him guilty, it wasn’t about whether he meant offence, whether the word was offensive in his country or in Britain, but the fact that he made a reference to another players colour. To claim that this was racist is not correct in my opinion, What were his motives, check Luis Suarez’s family history, his own grandfather was black. Maybe you have already made up your mind based on the facts presented by the media. I’d recoment that you read the Report, and then search around the Football Forums and make up your own mind. I enclose a link to the FA’s report:
Terry  V Ferdinand

Terry V Ferdinand

Terry V Ferdinand

Then there was John Terry and Anton Ferdinand. Apparently John Terry, the England Football Captain racially abused Anton Ferdinand of QPR. People posted video footage online claiming it as evidence of abuse. The CPS are taking this allegation seriously, Terry has been charged and will appear at Magistrate’s Court. Yet Prior to the notification by the CPS did you notice little the F.A said about this perhaps it is because John Terry is the England captain. Racism in this case has not been proved yet but it’s surprising how much vitriol Suarez recieved from the press as opposed to Terry. Is it because Suarez is from Uruguay and Terry is English? It certainly seems like double standards to me.

I am of course glad that the F.A is now taking a more robust stance on racism. I remember Everton fans throwing bananas at John Barnes, in the 1980’s, and we have all seen the disgusting treatment England’s black players get when they travel to Eastern Europe. Yet I can’t help thinking that the suarez verdict was a perfect way for the F.A to cock a snook at Sep Blatter’s disgusting dismissal of racism. I only hope that if John Terry is found Gulty, that he will recieve the same treatment as Suarez. Should he be found innocent, he should be supported by the F.A and not thrown to the baying mob.
BBC News – Terry -Ferdinand – Disputed Remarks

Stephen Lawrence Trial

Then we had the conviction of the Accused Gary Dobson and David Norris for the murder of Stephen Lawrence, 17 years ago at the bus stop in Eltham. Finally these two were back in court, again charged with the murder of Stephen Lawrence, this time they were found guilty and the press went to town. Despite their crowing. very little was said about how despicable it is that it took 17 years to bring the killers to justice. At least they are behind bars now, yet it will be interesting to see if the media keep the pressure on the existing suspects because there are still several members of the original accused who are still at large.

Dianne Abbott causes Twitter Storm

If that wasn’t enough news on the Race category, Hackney MP Diane Abbott got herself into a storm over making “racist” comments on twitter she tweeted that “white people love to play divide and rule”, is it just me or was this a stupid tweet? If miss Abbott thinks white people love to play divide and rule she would be sensible to keep such thoughts to herself, given that many of her constituents are White. A politician should not be seen to be discriminating against any racial group. In her defence Miss Abbott said that the tweet was taken out of context, but she is an intelligent woman who holds a degree, and is an experienced a politician. Opposition politicians, the press and the Twitterati called for her head, she was lucky to have survived and to have kept her place in the shadow cabinet. As someone who no longer cares about the political parties in Britain, it is my conclusion that Ms Abbott has damaged her credibility, she is quick to vocally attack racism when ift affects black people, yet seems to think that making sweeping generalisations about the white race can be somehow excused.

When it comes to racism we black people have to be objective. It is no good sticking up for Diane Abbott when she makes stupid mistakes, she shames herself and ridicules the cause of anti racism. It is no good crying “racist” without providing evidence to prove that someone behaved in a racist manner. It’s simply degrades the cause and fight against real racism.

We live in a country where racism is supposedly dead. Yet it is telling indictment upon our society when we read the reason why Neville and Doreen Lawrence buried their son in Jamaica because they were so scared that if they had buried him in England his grave would have been desecrated by those who would glorify the acts of the racists.

As a final though if only the media only taken a stronger stance on racism before the 1990s Stephen Lawrence may still be walking amongst us today. It took his death for the establishment to open one eye.

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John Conteh-Boxer

John Conteh - Boxer

John Conteh - Boxer

John Conteh was born in Liverpool in 1951, to an Irish mother and Sierra Leonean father. He was raised in a rough neighbourhood, and his father encouraged him to box at the Kirkby Athletic Club when he was 10 to keep him from joining the local gangs. John excelled in boxing,

As an amateur boxer, John remarkably notched up wins against the world’s best at the 1970 Commonwealth Games. He won a record three Gold Medals at the Commonwealth Games and quickly followed up by winning ABA titles at middleweight in 1970 and light-heavyweight in 1971.

The early promise shown by John as an amateur soon blossomed and developed into a prolific career at a professional level. Taking on the world’s best, he defeated at light heavyweight, British, European and Commonwealth champions before becoming the (WBC) World Boxing Councils World Crown Holder in 1973,defeating Jorge Ahumada of Argentina.

After successfully defending his world title three times he eventually lost his title in 1977. John tried in vain to regain his title three times.

He was rightly hailed as the most talented British boxer for many years, however, persistent hand injuries and unsettling relationships with various managers unfortunately shortened John’s boxing career.

As his all round ability showed by winning the all sport British Superstars TV competition in 1974, John is no slouch when it comes to playing other sports. he is a serious golfer Playing off a handicap of eight. John is Asked regularly to play on celebrity golf days, John always puts a smile on everyone’s face with his own brand of jokes, observations and hilarious stories.


Related Links
John Conteh – Official Site

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John Richard Archer – Britains first Black Mayor – 1913

John Richard Archer

John Richard Archer

John Richard Archer was Britain’s first black Mayor. He was also the first black person to hold Civic Office in Britain as Councillor, Alderman and then

Archer was born in Liverpool in 1836 to a Barbadian father and an Irish mother. He settled in Battersea in London around 1890 with his black Canadian wife, there they opened an award winning photographic studio in Battersea Park Road.

Black Mayor of Battersea

Black Mayor of Battersea

He came to prominence as an outstanding public speaker when he supported John Burns in the 1905 General Election. Then, in 1906 he won the local election and became Britains first British born black Councillor. Until he was nominated there was no mention by the opposition parties of his colour. Later they used his race to
supposedly highlight the radical policies of Battersea’s working class tradition.

In 1913 he was elected the tenth Mayor of Battersea.

The night of his election he declaredYou have made history tonight..Battersea has done many things in it’s past, but the greatest thing that it has done is show that it has no colour predjudice, and that it recognizes a man for the work he has

At the 1921 Pan African Congress he introduced Shapurji Saklatvala who was an Indian Communist to both the Labour party and the Communist
Party. John Richard Archer died in 1932.

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KS3 Britain's Black History – Black Britons

Tony Warner

Tony Warner

Black History for Schools

Teachers looking for black history for schools? There has been a Black Presence in the British Isles since Roman time. In more recent Centuries the black presence is well documented should you care to look for it.
Teachers TV offers this Introductory video, which you can download from their site to start you in your investigations.

Historian Tony Warner explains how the first black people to arrive in Britain were not slaves or servants, in this easy-to-understand classroom resource for Year 7 to Year 9. Looking back through the centuries, there is evidence of influential Caribbean and African descent.

One of the earliest records of black people living in Britain is from 1511, when a North African trumpeter was depicted on the Westminster Tournament Roll. He was probably employed by both Henry VII and Henry VIII. Black men and women made appearances in the diaries of Samuel Pepys and in 18th century portraits

Tony explains how by the late 16th century, trade had opened up between West Africa and Britain and Africans began to settle here, especially in seafaring places like Bristol, London, Liverpool and Glasgow.

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Black Britons – Race Riots in South Shields and Liverpool

Black Britons – Race Riots in South Shields

Yemeni Protester being led away

Yemeni Protester being led away

The first race riots to take place in Britain were in South Shields (Tyneside). A number of Arab and Somali seamen had settled there in the 1860’s, and theses populations were added to by West African and West Indian Seamen who settled in North shields before the First World War. Because of the war the areas black population increased fourfold.

The first Riot took place when in 1919 some Arab Seamen, having just paid their £ 2 stamp to clear their union book, which had to be paid up to date before they could sail, were then refused work. J.B Fye an official of the stewards and cooks Union incited a crowd of foreign white seamen against the Arab seamen; he was later convicted of using language likely to cause a breach of the peace.

Fye himself hit one of the Arabs, who hit him back…the crown then chased the Arabs all the way Holborn, the district in South shields where they lived. Here Friends of the Arabs arrived to back them up. They fired warning shots over the heads of the attackers, then they turned the tables on them chasing the attackers through the streets back to the Shipping Office, which was wrecked in the following fight. Army and Navy patrols were called in and 12 of the Arabs were arrested. At Durham assizes the judge was reasonably lenient. Three were acquitted, others received between three months prison and one month hard Labour.


After the war demobilisation took its toll on black workers living in and around Liverpool and their numbers swelled to around 5,000. Then in the spring of 1919 around 120 black workers, employed for years in the sugar refineries and oilcake mills were fired because white workers now refused to work with them. In those days there was no state benefit, and families had to live on credit for as long as they could manage. Many black families were at the end of their credit limit and were being thrown out of their lodgings.

On the 13th May the secretary of the Liverpool Ethiopian Association , the merchant D.T.Toummavah, wen to see the Lord Mayor. His visit was to explain that between 500 and 600 black men , mostly discharged British soldiers were out of work and were stranded in the area.

He suggested that the Colonial Office repatriate the men and provide them a bursary of £5 because many of the men had pawned their possessions to buy food. Also many of the men had lost limbs or eyes in the war.

The mayor had also received a deputation claiming to represent 5,000 jobless white ex-servicemen who were complaining of competition for jobs from black workers.

The Mayor wrote to the colonial office putting forward both cases.

“Only the other night there was a fight between the two races, and matters are not likely to improve.

(Liverpool Post and Mercury, (7th,11th,19th June 1919) ,
Manchester Garden (7th, June 1919.)
(Liverpool Echo 10th June 1919)
(11th June Liverpool Courier 1919)
(14th,21st June,Liverpool weekly post 1919)
Racial Riots – Inspector Hugh Burgess


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Race Riots in Liverpool 1919



Race riots in the U.K have occurred for some time in Britain. Some of the first recorded “Race Riots” involving black people took place in Liverpool. Liverpool has a long established black community left over from its former status as a Slave Port.

John Johnson a West Indian was stabbed in the face by 2 Scandinavians in a pub because he refused to give them a cigarette. The news spread quickly and the next evening eight of his friends went to the pub that the Scandinavians used. They threw beer over them and then attacked them with sticks, knives,razors and Iron bars. in the process they knocked a policeman ,who had tried to stop them unconscious.

Five Scandinavians were taken to the hospital but only one was seriously hurt. In an effort to find the perpetrators of the attack the police raided boarding houses used by the black seamen. The black seamen dug in and defended themselves with weapons even a revolver. One policeman was shot in the mouth and another in the neck, a third was slashed in the face and a fourth had his wrist broken.

A Lynch Mob had now formed and Charles Wooten a 24 year old ships fireman ran from one of the raided houses, he was chased by 2 policemen and an angry crowd of between 200 and 300 people who were hurling missiles. The policemen caught him at the edge of the dock and then the lynch mob was upon them they tore Wootton from the police and hurled him into the dock where he was pelted with rocks as he swam… he died in the water and then they dragged the corpse out of the water. No arrests were made.

During the next three days there was mob rule on the streets of Liverpool On the eighth of June 3 west African were stabbed in the street. On the 9th and 10th mobs of well organised young men roamed the streets their numbers were estimated at between 2000 and 10000 savagely attacking and beating any negroe they could find.(Burgess).
A black man who held a good position on one of Liverpool’s liners was dragged from a car robbed of 175 and beaten, as was a black ex serviceman who held three medals for War Service.

On the evening of June 10th in Toxteth Park thousands of people were filling the thoroughfares in a wild state of excitement. Houses that were occupied by black people were being looted one after another, then being set on fire.

There is a feeling of Terror amongst the coloured people of the city, all night long until sunrise, it added ‘black men could be seen in companies hastening along unfrequented thoroughfares to the nearest police station or Ethiopian Associations.

Despite some local newspapers fanning the flames of the troubles it was left to a local magistrate to say that it was these mobs which were making the name of Liverpool an abomination and disgrace to the rest of the country.

(Liverpool Post and Mercury, (7th,11th,19th June 1919) ,
Manchester Guardian (7th, June .)
(Liverpool Echo 10th June)
(11th june Liverpool Courier)
(14th,21st June,Liverpool weekly post )
Racial Riots – Inspector Hugh Burgess

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The African Mission-Liverpool, England. 1940s

Reverend Eckhart

Reverend Eckhart

“The mission was situated in the south end of Liverpool, England, what we indigenous people called Liverpool 8. The official address was 122/124 Hill Street, Liverpool 8, and was right in the heart of the coloured community of the town. It was a fitting situation to raise “Brown Babies” who were the offspring of white English women and black American GIs. Pastor G. Daniel Ekarte was the director of the mission, who had settled in Britain from the Commonwealth country of Nigeria. He was a very articulate man, and from what I could remember knew every black person in the city. ” Brian Lawrenson.

Brian Lawrenson writes about his time growing up as a “Brown Baby” in a postwar Liverpool orphanage.

Related websites:
Brian Lawrenson
The children the Left Behind

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Black Soldiers in the British Army-John Ellis

John Ellis has been regular contributor to “The Black Presence in Britain Website. His specialist research focuses on the black presence in the British Armed Forces before the 20th Century.

In the synopsis of my MA thesis, (featured on this site), I referred to a number of Black soldiers who served in British regiments during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

It would of course be easy to leave such men as? faceless individuals ,however, military records from the period are sufficiently accurate that we are able to examine their careers. Below are the biographical and service details of eleven soldiers, who are fairly representative of those being found by my research. NB. All dates are given in the British manner, all spelling as found in original records. West Indies Born.

The majority of the Black soldiers thus far found originated from the West Indies, something which reflected the? Triangular trade. ) The 29th Foot, (now the? Worcestershire & Sherwood Foresters Regiment ), has always been proud of its tradition of employing black soldiers during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The practice began in the early 1750s, and whilst initially ceremonial, Black soldiers were fully trained as soldiers and served as company drummers, accompanying the regiment on campaign in North America, the East and West Indies and most famously the Peninsular.

John Macnell was one of the earliest black soldiers in the regiment. He was born in Antigua in 1744, enlisted in the 29th in 1756 aged 12 years, (not an unusual age for either black or white), and was discharged to pension in London in 1777 as disabled. He was described as? a Negro . Macnell sources: WO 12/4493. WO 120/8. 2) Probably because of the perceived racial hierarchy of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, few Black soldiers were promoted to positions of authority over whites, (although paradoxically their records reveal them to have been highly respected soldiers). Of the few Black soldiers to be promoted, it is clear that extensive campaign experience was one of the criteria, as the records of one Estiphania Pappin reveal.

Estiphania Pappin. Born in St. Domingo, West Indies and enlisted in the 39th Foot, (now the? Devon & Dorset Regiment ), in Malta 1st March 1808 aged 20 years. Promoted Corporal 01/02/1828.? Served in Malta 1 year, Sicily 14 months, Peninsula 3 years and was present at several engagements – Vittoria, Pyrenees, Nivelle, Nive, Garris, Orthes and Toulouse. In America 1 year, in France 3 years and New South Wales 9 months.? Discharged as a Corporal to a pension of 1s per day, 30th June 1832, at his own request.? ….his conduct has been that of a particularly regular, sober, well conducted man.? On discharge he was 441/2 years old, 5 /10? tall, had grey hair, black eyes, a dark complexion -? a man of colour? – and was a labourer by trade.

Pappin Sources: WO 97/557. 3)

A number of Black soldiers appear to have spent their military service undertaking ceremonial duties in London, including one Edward Bennaway.

Edward Bennaway. Born in Martinique, West Indies and enlisted for life in the 2nd Life Guards in Westminster, Middlesex 25th December 1812 aged 28 years. Discharged as a Private to a pension of 1s per day 24th August 1827 due to? having completed his period of service.? On discharge he was of extremely good character, 52 years old, 6 /0? tall, had black hair, grey eyes, was? a man of colour , and was a fisherman by trade.

Bennaway Sources: WO 97/1. 4)

In 1818 the American former slave and boxer Tom Molineaux died in the barracks of the 77th Foot, (now the? Princess of Wales? Royal Regiment ), in Galway, Ireland. As he lay dying he was nursed by the Black bandsmen of the regiment including one Charles Smart.

Charles Smart. Height at Enlistment: 5/71/4. Age on Enlistment: 25 years. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Black Woolly. Visage: Round. Born: Jamaica. Trade: Labourer. Place of Enlistment: Cashel. Date of Enlistment: 25th April 1816. Length of Service:Unlimited. Discharged in Jamaica 31st December 1833,? On receiving a gratuity.? Smart Source: WO 25/473. 5)

Given their position at the top of the regimental hierarchy a number of cavalry regiments employed Black soldiers as military musicians. However, in battles such as the Peninsular and Waterloo these men served as either troop trumpeters or as ordinary Privates.

John Monatt. Born in St. George s, Grenada and enlisted for unlimited service in the 5th Dragoon Guards, (now the? Royal Dragoon Guards ), in Canterbury, Kent 11th April 1812 aged 21 years. Discharged as a Private to a pension 27th April 1825 due to rheumatism and general ill health. Surgeon noted? I hereby certify that Private John Monatt of the 5th Dragoon Guards is unfit for service, in consequence of chronic rheumatism and general ill health……next few words indecipherable…contracted in service and resulting in a delicate constitution.? On discharge he was of good character, 34 years old, 5/10? tall, had black hair,hazel eyes, a tawny complexion and was a servant by trade. In 1848 John Monatt, formerly of the 5th Dragoon Guards, was awarded the Military General Service Medal 1793-1814, with a clasp for Toulouse. Monatt Sources: WO 97/96. 6)

William Wilson. Born in Barbadoes, West Indies and initially enlisted in the 55th Foot 25th April 1795 aged 24 years. Enlisted in the 28th Light Dragoons 30/04/1798. Enlisted in the 13th Light Dragoons 26/02/1803. Served as a Private at Waterloo, and received the Waterloo Medal. Discharged as a Private to a pension of 9d per day 20th May 1816 as worn out. On discharge he was 37years old, 5 /61/2? tall,? a black man? and was a musician by trade. Wilson Source: WO 97/146. 7) During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries much of the British Army was employed in the Far East, and many Black soldiers spent their service there, being involved in the numerous campaigns.

Elisha Rosia. Born in Martinique, West Indies and enlisted for unlimited service in the 69th Foot. (now the? Royal Regiment of Wales ), in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, 12th January 1803, aged 25 years. Discharged as a Private to a pension of 1s/1d per day, 28th August 1823,? being worn out in service.?? Very good and deserving.? On discharge he was 40 years old, 5 /51/2? tall, had black hair, black eyes,a black complexion and was a hair dresser by trade. Some doubt as to age. In 1848 an Elisha Rosia, formerly of the 69th Foot, was awarded the Military General Service Medal 1793-1814, with a bar for Java. Drew pension in Madras until death in January 1848. Rosia Sources: WO 97/822. 120/69-70. Born elsewhere. Whilst the majority of Black soldiers found can be identified as coming from the West Indies, others came in roughly equal measure from Africa, continental North America, (i.e. the United States and Canada), the East Indies and Britain and Ireland. Cool The 88th Foot had a number of Black soldiers serving with it in the Peninsular campaign, and even after the Napoleonic Wars continued to recruit Black soldiers.

Thomas Clarke.88th Foot. Height at Enlistment: 5 /81/2 . Height at 24 years: 5 /81/2 . Age on Enlistment:23 years. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Black. Visage: Round. Born: Africa. Parish of Birth: Goree. Trade: Servant. Enlisted: Liverpool. Date of Enlistment: 17th July1820. Length of Service: Life. Recruiter: HQ Regt., (Col. Sgt Scrivins). Goree, is a small island off Cape Verde in Senegal. Captured from the French in the early part of the Napoleonic Wars. Clarke Sources: WO 25/517. 9)

Samuel Jones. 99th Foot. Height at Enlistment: 5 /41/2 . Age on Enlistment: 15 yrs. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Woolly black. Born: Calcutta, East Indies. Trade:Labourer. Enlisted: Dublin. Date of enlistment: 23rd February 1810. Period of Service:Unlimited. Recruited by: Sgt. Tewhoy. Jones Source/s: PRO. WO 25/550. 10)

Gibeon Lippett. Born in Rhode Island, (America), and enlisted for unlimited service in the 43rd Foot, (now the? Royal Green Jackets ), in Cork city, County Cork,22nd June 1796, aged 17 years. Served 185 days as a Private, 29 years and 103 days as a Drummer, (and 185 days underage).? Served with the regiment 3 years in the West Indies.In the expedition to Copenhagen in 1807, General Sir John Moore s retreat in 1809, and in every siege and action in which the 43rd Regiment was engaged from the Battle of Coa 24th July 1810, to the end of the War in the South of France. Served at New Orleans in America, 8th January, 1815 and present at the Capture of Paris in July 1815.? Discharged as a Private to a pension, 5th April 1826,? his constitution being worn out by long and severe service.? On discharge he was illiterate, of very good character, 57 years old, 5 /83/4? tall, had black hair,black eyes, a mulatto complexion, and was a sail maker by trade. Lippett Source: WO 97/587. 11)

By the mid 1840s the practice of employing Black soldiers alongside whites is believed to have finished, and thereafter Blacks are thought to have been unofficially restricted to the West India Regiment and East India Company until World War One. Considering the long tradition of Black soldiers serving in the 29th Foot, (see entry #1), it is fitting to finish this short study with George Carville.

George Carville. A Drummer. Height at Enlistment: 6/1/4 . Age on Enlistment: 18 years. Complexion: Black. Eyes: Black. Hair: Black Woolly. Visage: Round. Born: Limerick. Parish of Birth: St. Mary s. Trade: Labourer. Place of Enlistment: Mullingar. Date of Enlistment: 26th of February 1823. Length of Service: Unlimited. Recruiter: Col. Sir John Buchan. Died at Ghargeepore, (India), 15th July 1843. The last black Drummer of the 29th Foot, believed to have died of cholera. Left a credit of approximately five pounds in a will for his nominated next of kin, his (white) regimental comrade Private JosephPrindale. Carville Sources: WO 25/364. WO 25/3255.

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