UNCERTAINTY hangs over the future of Antigua and Barbuda’s second-term government of Prime Minister Baldwin Spencer last week with the filing of four election petitions Thursday (March 19) by the opposition Antigua Labour Party (ALP) in the High Court.
The challenging of the declared results involve three of the nine seats won by the incumbent United Progressive Party (UPP), including that of the prime minister, plus that of a claimed “independent” candidate for the single Barbuda constituency, Trevor Walker, recognised as being pro-UPP.
The March 12 elections will be remembered for unprecedented chaotic arrangements for voting, including hours of delays in the opening of polling stations and unavailability of voter registration cards.
There was also the surprising crucial factor of open public differences over readiness arrangements between the Electoral Commission and its Supervisor of Elections Lorna Simon. The supervisor went public last week with her contention that at least another two weeks were required to have everything properly in place.
This as well as allegations by the opposition – vehemently denied by the government – of the stuffing of ballot boxes and discrimination in the distribution of voting cards are expected to be some of the matters highlighted in the coming court hearings of the election petitions.
Last week, Geoffrey Pete–long a well-respected figure in Oakland’s African-American community, and the owner of Geoffrey’s Inner Circle nightclub–held a press conference outside Oakland City Hall to announce he’s considering filing a complaint against the OPD for unlawful harassment.
Pete has previously raised allegations that OPD and former mayor Jerry Brown instituted a crackdown on Oakland’s African-American clubs in the downtown area–which happened to coincide with Brown’s plan to bring 10,000 new residents to the city and a surge of development. On Tuesday, he charged the police with “extortion practices as it relates to the closing of my establishment” and threatened a lawsuit unless mediation occurs.
As reported on the front page of the Oakland Post (both the Chron and the Trib neglected to cover the press conference), Pete claims that OPD gave “false information” to the manager of a parking garage the nightclub used, which led to the cancellation of Pete’s contract, and refused to allow him to hold an event at Sweet’s Ballroom unless 18 police officers were hired to provide security, at a cost of $7,600 (OPD later dropped the number of officers needed to six, which Pete also refused to pay for, and the party was shut down when officers blocked the entrance).
Like many West European nations, Germany established colonies in Africa in the late 1800s in what later became Togo, Cameroon, Namibia, and Tanzania.
German genetic experiments began there, most notably involving prisoners taken from the 1904 Heroro Massacre that left 60,000 Africans dead, following a 4-year revolt against German colonisation. After the crushing defeat Germany received in World War I, it was stripped of its African colonies in 1918.
As a spoil of war, the French were allowed to occupy Germany in the Rhineland – a bitter fought piece of land that has gone back and forth between the two nations for centuries. The French willfully deployed their own colonised African soldiers as the occupying force.
Germans viewed this as the final insult of World War I, and, soon thereafter, 92% of them voted in the Nazi party.
Hundreds of the African Rhineland-based soldiers intermarried with German women and raised their children as Black Germans. In Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote about his plans for these “Rhineland Bastards”. When he came to power, one of his first directives was aimed at these mixed-race children.
Underscoring Hitler’s obsession with racial purity, by 1937, every identified mixed-race child in the Rhineland had been forcibly sterilized, in order to prevent further “race polluting”, as Hitler termed it.
Hans Hauck, a Black Holocaust survivor and a victim of Hitler’s mandatory sterilisation program, explained in the film “Hitler’s Forgotten Victims” that, when he was forced to undergo sterilisation as a teenager, he was given no anaesthetic.?Once he received his sterilisation certificate, he was “free to go”, so long as he agreed to have no sexual relations whatsoever with Germans.
Although most Black Germans attempted to escape their fatherland, heading for France where people like Josephine Baker were steadily aiding and supporting the French Underground, many still encountered problems elsewhere. Nations shut their doors to Germans, including the Black ones.
Some Black Germans were able to eke out a living during Hitler’s reign of terror by performing in Vaudeville shows, but many Blacks, steadfast in their belief that they were German first, Black second, opted to remain in Germany. Some fought with the Nazis (a few even became Lutwaffe pilots)!
Unfortunately, many Black Germans were arrested, charged with treason, and shipped in cattle cars to concentration camps. Often these trains were so packed with people and (equipped with no bathroom facilities or food), that, after the four-day journey, box car doors were opened to piles of the dead and dying.
Once inside the concentration camps, Blacks were given the worst jobs conceivable. Some Black American soldiers, who were captured and held as prisoners of war, recounted that, while they were being starved and forced into dangerous labour (violating the Geneva Convention), they were still better off than Black German concentration camp detainees, who were forced to do the unthinkable-man the crematoriums and work in labs where genetic experiments were being conducted.
As a final sacrifice, these Blacks were killed every three months so that they would never be able to reveal the inner workings of the “Final Solution”.
In every story of Black oppression, no matter how we were enslaved, shackled, or beaten, we always found a way to survive and to rescue others. As a case in point, consider Johnny Voste, a Belgian resistance fighter who was arrested in 1942 for alleged sabotage and then shipped to Dachau. One of his jobs was stacking vitamin crates. Risking his own life, he distributed hundreds of vitamins to camp detainees, which saved the lives of many who were starving, weak, and ill-conditions exacerbated by extreme vitamin deficiencies. His motto was “No, you can’t have my life; I will fight for it.”
According to Essex University’s Delroy Constantine-Simms, there were Black Germans who resisted Nazi Germany, such as Lari Gilges, who founded the Northwest Rann – an organisation of entertainers that fought the Nazis in his home town of Dusseldorf – and who was murdered by the SS in 1933, the year that Hitler came into power.
Little information remains about the numbers of Black Germans held in the camps or killed under the Nazi regime. Some victims of the Nazi sterilisation project and Black survivors of the Holocaust are still alive and telling their story in films such as “Black Survivors of the Nazi Holocaust”, but they must also speak out for justice, not just history.
Unlike Jews (in Israel and in Germany), Black Germans receive no war reparations because their German citizenship was revoked (even though they were German-born). The only pension they get is from those of us who are willing to tell the world their stories and continue their battle for recognition and compensation.
After the war, scores of Blacks who had somehow managed to survive the Nazi regime, were rounded up and tried as war criminals. Talk about the final insult! There are thousands of Black Holocaust stories, from the triangle trade, to slavery in America, to the gas ovens in Germany. We often shy away from hearing about our historical past because so much of it is painful; however, we are in this struggle together for rights, dignity, and, yes, reparations for wrongs done to us through the centuries. We need to always remember so that we can take steps to ensure that these atrocities never happen again.